Saturday, November 26, 2016

Writing letters of excuse

Some employers may ask employees for a formal letter explaining when and why they missed work. Sometimes these letters are written before an absence and sometimes they are written after.
Employees often also have to write excuse letters for longer leaves of absence or other extended time off.
Formal excuse letters are used in other situations too, such as an absence from jury duty or an absence from school.
Read below for tips on writing a formal excuse letter, as well as two sample letters: one sample to send an employer before you miss work and one for after.

Tips for Writing a Formal Excuse Letter

  • Follow business letter format. Use the official business letter format when writing your letter. You want this letter to be professional.
  • Understand your employer’s policies. Before you miss work, make sure you know the policy for letting your boss know that you will be absent. Know whether you need to tell your boss, and how you should get him or her that information (i.e. a phone call, a letter, an email). Also look into how far in advance you need to tell your employer.
  • Send the letter as soon as possible. If possible, send your excuse letter before you miss work. You want to give your employer time to reassign any of your tasks. If you are asking for a longer leave of absence, send this letter as early as possible. If you don’t have time to send a formal letter, consider sending an excuse email instead.
  • Keep it brief. Do not go into great detail about why you are missing work (such as a long list of your symptoms if you are sick or a detailed story about a personal problem). Instead, simply briefly state the day or days you will be absent, and explain (briefly) why.
  • Offer to help. You might consider helping make up for your absence in some way. For example, you might say that you will still be on email during your absence, or you might offer to work an extra hour or two later to complete some missed projects. If you can prepare your absence in advance, ask one or two of your colleagues or employees for help completing any assignments you will be missing. This will be particularly important when you are asking for a longer leave of absence.

Sample Formal Excuse Letter (After Missing Work)

Employer's Name
Employer's Title
City, State, Zip Code

Dear Mr./Ms. Last Name:
Please accept this letter as formal notification that I was unable to attend work on September 1, 20XX due to illness. I have already completed the tasks for this week that I missed during my absence.
Please let me know if I can provide any further information. Thank you for understanding.
Your Signature (hard copy letter)
Your Typed Name

Sample Formal Excuse Letter (Before Missing Work)

Employer's Name
Employer's Title
City, State, Zip Code

Dear Mr./Ms. Last Name:
Please accept this letter as formal notification that I will be unable to attend work from September 1, 20XX to September 5, 20XX. I will be attending the professional development conference that I spoke with you about earlier this week.
I have arranged to be on email during work hours, and I will call and check in with the office once a day to see what I missed.
Please let me know if I can provide any further information, or if you need anything else from me to make my absence run smoothly. Thank you for allowing me to take this terrific opportunity.
Your Signature (hard copy letter)
Your Typed Name

Sending an Email Message

If you would prefer to email your excuse, here's how to send your email message.
More Absence Excuse Letters

Employees may need to provide an excuse letter when they miss time from work to interview or for other reasons. Here are more sample excuse letters that can be edited to fit your personal circumstances.
Please Note: These samples are provided for guidance only. The provided information, including samples and examples, is not guaranteed for accuracy or legality. Letters and other correspondence should be edited to fit your personal situation.

Saturday, November 19, 2016

Spoken English - Responding to suggestions

The following English phrases and expressions are all used to make suggestions and give advice to people.

Making suggestions:

  • Let’s revise our lessons.
  • What about going to the cinema tonight?
  • How about playing cards?
  • Why don't we do our homework?
  • Couldn't we invite your grandmother to our party?
  • Shall we have a walk along the river?
  • What would you say to a cup of coffee?
  • Don't you think it is a good idea to watch TV?
  • Does it matter if we use your car?

Accepting suggestions:

  • Ok. Yes, let's.
  • Yes, I'd like to.
  • Yes, I'd love to.
  • What a good idea!
  • Why not?
  • Yes, with pleasure.
  • Yes, I feel like taking a walk.
  • That sounds like a good idea.  

Refusing suggestions:

  • No, let's not.
  • No, I'd rather not.
  • I don't feel like it.
  • I dislike going for a walk.
  • What an awful / bad idea!

Things to remember about suggestions:

1.The verb "suggest" can be followed by either:
  • should + verb = I suggest (that) we should go to the theater.
  • a verb (in the subjunctive form)= I suggest (that) we go to the movies.
2."That" is optional:
  • "I suggest that we should visit Paris."
  • "I suggest we should visit Paris."

Describing a process


This document describes how to write a process description,a variation of the short report designed to convey to the reader how a change takes place through a series of stages. The process description examines an event over time; by contrast, the mechanism description focuses on an object in space.
Use a process description when your intended reader wants to learn about the action in question. You might use a process description to examine the photosynthesis of plants, the migration of animals, or the impeachment of presidents.
A process description generally involves events that take place regardless of the reader’s actions. To help your reader actually perform the action, write instructions instead (that is, a series of commands: “Insert tab A into slot B”).
In general, break the whole process up into smaller stages, and describe each stage in order. If the process is part of a continuing cycle (such as the evaporation and condensation of water), say so.
Caution: If you are writing a process description for a classroom exercise, avoid writing “helpful hints,” by which I mean a collection of many details that do not need to take place in any particular order.

Brief Description

In another brief paragraph (or possibly the same one as the introduction), answer the question, “How does it happen?” Provide any necessary context (who or what performs the action, and under what conditions; what is its significance?). Give a concise overview of the process. This brief description should stand alone — that is, it should not refer to details, facts, or terms that aren’t explained within the summary. You will probably have an easier time writing this section if you save it until you have written out the complete description. Conclude this section by breaking the process up into stages: “The principle stages of writing process are planning, drafting, revising, and proofreading.” Then, focus on each step in turn.

Step-by-step Description

For each step in your description, write a miniature process description:
  • define the step
  • state its purpose (or function within the process)
  • providing the necessary context, and
  • include brief mechanism descriptions
    for any components that may be involved
Divide this stage up into substages, if necessary.

Sunday, November 13, 2016

How to write notice and circulars


Notice   writing is an important part of English writing course in many education boards including CBSE. Notices are used in our life in many ways .Thus it is essential for us to understand utility, features and syntax of a good notice.


Suppose you lost your watch in school playground; you can place a notice on school notice board to appeal to return it to you. Your teachers can put a notice here to inform about exam dates, change in syllabus, essay competition or educational tour to Jaipur etc.

            You must have seen “public notice” in newspaper given by government, lawyers or some company. These bring public attention to some important issues. Interested viewer of a notice can be specific like student of a school or general like readers of a newspaper. Notices are actually needed to be pasted, clipped or published at a place where many interested persons visit to look for information. This place can be notice board of a school, reception desk of an office, bank, court, Websites of govt. department or any company, notice column of a newspaper or any other place where people come frequently.

A good notice should have following features
1) Briefà a notice should provide information in minimum number of words .About 40 to 50 words are enough. Sentences should be short. No repletion; No introduction; only to the point information.

2) CompleteàNotice should provide complete information. If you are writing notice about sports competition, it should tell about participation criteria like age limit, fees if any, Date, venue, chief guest, prize etc.

3) Authority  à Notice must include name of authority who is issuing the notice. It can be you (as in the case of watch lost in school playground), teacher, principal, manager of bank, secretary of departments etc.

4) ClarityàThere should not be any ambiguity in the information. Message should be straight forward.
Thus brevity, completeness and clarity are the main ingredients of a good notice.

Syntax  à

A notice has three parts- head, body and authority /contact person

1)      Head à it is the eye catcher. It tells the main topic or issue of the notice.

Example:   a) notice- dance competition.
                  b) notice- Annual magazine of school
                  c) notice- sports competition.
                  d) notice- change in interest rates of bank.

2)      Body à all information is provided here

3)  Authority /contact person à Name or/ and signature of notice issuing authority should be included in the end. If notice requires meeting with someone to submit name, paper or other things, contact person name, phone and meeting place and time should also be included. Contact person is also required for further clarification and information.


Q1) you are siddhart, head boy of KGIL international school. Your school is publishing annual magazine next month. Write a notice for your school notice board and invite write ups from the student.


Notice – Annual Magazine

Our school is publishing annual magazine next month. Interested students can submit their articles, stories, essays, poems, jokes, etc to the undersigned in room no 205, in 4th period before 15th of this month. Mention your name, class, roll no, and also submit one photograph. Write up should be original. In choosing content decision of selection committee will be final.

Head boy –
KGIL international school

Q2) you are secretary of Mahatma Gandhi library. There are changes in membership fees and book rental charges from next month. Write a notice for library notice board to provide all these information to the members.


Notice –change in membership & rental charges.

            Our library is the oldest and the biggest in the city. We are increasing many facilities like Internet and online booking. We are committed for quality. So, in this atmosphere of inflation we are compelled to increase membership fees by 25% and book rental charges by 20% w.e.f . first day of the next month. I hope you’ll bear with us.

Mahatma Gandhi library.

Q3)You are Rohit Saxena, head boy of Ram convent school. Your school is organizing a dance competition. Write a notice for your school notice board and invite names of interested students.


Notice-Dance competition

Our school is organizing a dance competition on 10-10-2011 in school auditorium. Minimum age limit is 13 years. No registration fees. Winners will get chance to represent school in inter-school competition in December. (Judges panel include principal and music teacher) Interested students meet undersigned in 5th period in room no-21.

Rohit  saxena
Head boy-
Ram convent school

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